Vsevolod Illarionovich Pudovkin (Russian: Все́волод Илларио́нович Пудо́вкин) (16 February 1893 — 20 June 1953) was a Russian and Soviet film director, screenwriter and actor who developed influential theories of montage. Pudovkin’s masterpieces are often contrasted with those of his contemporary Sergei Eisenstein, but whereas Eisenstein utilized montage to glorify the power of the masses, Pudovkin preferred to concentrate on the courage and resilience of individuals.
“The End of St. Petersburg” (Russian: Конец Санкт-Петербурга, translit. Konets Sankt-Peterburga) is a 1927 silent film directed by Vsevolod Pudovkin and produced by Mezhrabpom. Commissioned to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution, The End of St Petersburg was to be Pudovkin’s most famous film and secured his place as one of the foremost Soviet montage film directors. The film forms part of Pudovkin’s ‘revolutionary trilogy’, alongside Mother (1926) and Storm Over Asia (1928).
Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн; IPA: [sʲɪrˈɡʲej mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪt͡ɕ ɪjzʲɪnˈʂtʲejn]; 23 January 1898 — 11 February 1948) was a pioneering Soviet Russian film director and film theorist, often considered to be the “Father of Montage”. He is noted in particular for his silent films Strike (1924), Battleship Potemkin (1925) and October (1927), as well as the historical epics Alexander Nevsky (1938) and Ivan the Terrible (1944, 1958).
“The General Line” aka “Old and New” (Russian: Старое и новое, translit. Staroye i novoye) is a 1929 Soviet film directed by Sergei Eisenstein. The General Line was begun in 1927 as a celebration of the collectivization of agriculture, as championed by old-line Bolshevik Leon Trotsky. Hoping to reach a wide audience, the director forsook his usual practice of emphasizing groups by concentrating on a single rural heroine. Eisenstein briefly abandoned this project to film October: Ten Days That Shook the World, in honour of the 10th anniversary of the Revolution. By the time he was able to return to this film, the Party’s attitudes had changed and Trotsky had fallen from grace. As a result, the film was hastily re-edited and sent out in 1929 under a new title, The Old and the New. In later years, archivists restored The General Line to an approximation of Eisenstein’s original concept. Much of the director’s montage-like imagery—such as using simple props to trace the progress from the agrarian customs of the 19th-century to the more mechanized procedures of the 20th—was common to both versions of the film.